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Philanthropists began to adopt active campaigning roles.

In London prior to the 18th century, parochial and civic charities were typically established by bequests and operated by local church parishes (such as St Dionis Backchurch) or guilds (such as the Carpenters’ Company). During the 18th century, however, “a more activist and explicitly Protestant tradition of direct charitable engagement during life” took hold, exemplified […]

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By the 1820s, newly rich American businessmen were initiating philanthropic work.

American money proved invaluable. The Rockefeller Foundation opened an office in Paris and helped design and fund France’s modern public health system, under the National Institute of Hygiene. It also set up schools to train physicians and nurses. The first corporation founded in the 13 Colonies was Harvard College (1636), designed primarily to train young […]

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